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From 1822, when the Dickens family settled in Camden, to 1860 when the author took permanent residence at his Kent home of Gad’s Hill Place, London was his home.

Emma Jolly, in the article Dickens and London

Emma Jolly writer, historian, genealogist
  1. Book Review and Interview: Who Killed Constable Cock? by Angela Buckley

    Who Killed Constable Cock? by Angela Buckley

    This book is short but surprising. Angela tells this true crime story with a steady pace, which left me unprepared for the astonishing twists and turns. The case initially seemed straightforward but by close examination of the late 19th century Manchester underworld alongside an increasingly-advanced police force transformed the book into a page-turner. By the end, I could not put it down. The tension is heightened particularly by the fact that the story is true and I had begun to invest emotionally in the real people who became the characters in this book.

    How did you encounter the Constable Cock case?

    When I first became interested in crime history through researching my family tree, I began reading about true crime cases in my home city of Manchester. I was shocked to learn that a police officer had been killed just near my childhood home a century before I grew up there.

    At first, I thought the story was going to be straightforward. I was pretty startled when the book took a dramatic turn with Charlie Peace’s confession. Peace was an extraordinary character. What were your thoughts on him?

    Initially, I thought that Charlie Peace was a burglar who turned to violence to get him out of a tight spot, but my opinion of him changed completely when I read his confession at the National Archives. I now think that he was a man who was constantly on the lookout for trouble – he deliberately targeted his former lover and her husband and, although he claimed that he shot Arthur Dyson in self-defence, he showed no remorse and placed the blame firmly on the victim. It was the same for Constable Cock – Peace explained how it was the officer’s fault for not stepping away. His confession revealed a man who was defiant, unapologetic and possibly paranoid.

    You grew up in Manchester, where this book is set. Your popular police biography, The Real Sherlock Holmes: The Hidden Story of Jerome Caminada (Pen and Sword, 2014) is also set in the city. What draws you to explore the historic underworld of your hometown?

    It’s funny because I had no real idea of Manchester’s history when I was growing up there, probably because we didn’t learn about it at school. It wasn’t until I researched my family’s roots in the city that I really began to see what it would have been like living there in the 19th century.  Through my own family history, I was drawn into the city’s dark Victorian underworld and it has hooked me ever since. It was such a multilayered and fascinating place in Victorian times and there is always so much more to discover. I moved away from Manchester years ago, but my work has given me a real sense of my own personal history and background.

    One aspect of the story that stood out for me – and something that appeared to complicate the progress of the case – was the prevailing social attitude toward Irish immigrants. Today we would describe this as racism. Is this something that you have encountered elsewhere in your historical research, either for your own family or for your writing? 

    I was obviously aware of racial tensions and prejudice in Manchester when I was growing up there in the 1970s and 80s, but I didn’t realise that hostile attitudes towards immigrants had been prevalent for so long. My own family was from Italy and I was quite shocked to discover the prejudice they faced when they arrived in Manchester in the 1880s and especially how the Italian community was treated during the Second World War, when many of the older generation, including members of my family, were interned. My research into the history of the Irish community for Who Killed Constable Cock? was particularly distressing. As a Catholic, I went to school with many Irish families and I had no idea that they had suffered so much deprivation and abuse.

    You have researched extensively in police records and museums. What has stood out for you in the history of policing and methods of detection?

    I’m particularly interested in the police detectives and how they developed their sleuthing skills. As there was no formal training in the 19th century, they learnt on the job and had to keep their wits about them as they faced the challenges of fighting crime in some of the most notorious rookeries in Victorian England. I am fascinated by their pioneering work and I love reading about their adventures.

    What are you currently working on?

    I’ve started researching another real-life Victorian murder for a possible book project and this time I’m investigating the work of the early Scotland Yard detectives. I’d also like to take my study of Victorian police detectives further and I’m hoping to research ‘the art of sleuthing’ for a PhD.

    Angela Buckley is a true crime writer and author. Her work has featured in many national newspapers and magazines.  Who Killed Constable Cock?  is available in ebook and paperback. You can find out more about Angela’s work on her website, www.angelabuckleywriter.com and on her Facebook page Victorian Supersleuth.

     

     

  2. Book Review and Author Interview: The Malice of Angels by Wendy Percival

    The Malice of Angels by Wendy Percival (SilverWood Books, 2017)

    The reality of life as a genealogist can be quite mundane. I spend most hours in front of a computer, with the odd day out to archives or networking events. In the world of genealogy fiction, however, our imaginary counterparts have eventful lives, regularly being held at gunpoint, taking helicopter flights, or being lured into tunnels by sociopathic clients. Fortunately, my clients are invariably pleasant individuals but the part of me that wanted to be a detective when I grew up wouldn’t mind sharing some of the fictional adventures occasionally.

    I previously blogged about popular genealogical mystery writer, Steve Robinson, and his hero, Jefferson Tayte. Recently, I decided to try the work of Devon-based author, Wendy Percival, and discover the world of her researcher protagonist, Esme Quentin. Wendy has written three books so far, but I chose to begin with the third. The Malice of Angels is a novel based upon the experiences of women in the Second World War – a topic of personal interest to me. I very much enjoyed the book and look forward to reading more by Wendy. I most enjoyed the little-known aspects of the 1940s that Wendy brought into the plot. I also appreciated the intelligent focus on women’s history, as this is still, sadly, an area that is too often overlooked.

    In order to find out more, I interviewed Wendy about the book and her inspirations.

    This is your third Esme Quentin mystery. How long have you been a professional writer?

    I suppose the point at which I became a “professional writer” when the first Esme Quentin mystery, Blood-Tied was published by Robert Hale in 2008. I’d been writing for a few years by then, learning my craft, so to speak. I wasn’t sure then whether there would be more Esme stories but it was clear from the reaction I got from readers that Esme was a popular protagonist so it seemed a good idea to write another. By the time I’d written the second, The Indelible Stain, the world of publishing had changed hugely. The rights of Blood-Tied had reverted to me by then, so I decided to re-publish it as an ebook and paperback, following it with The Indelible Stain the following year and then in October 2017 with The Malice of Angels. In between, I wrote Death of a Cuckoo for SilverWood Books, for their sBooks “short reads” imprint.

    Before becoming a writer, I was a primary school teacher for 20 years. I moved to Devon in 1980 to take up my first teaching post in a small rural school, back in the days when primary education was much more holistic, integrated and inspirational. I left the profession when I could see the way things were heading!

    Much of the plot of Malice touches on the work of female agents of the Special Operations Executive (SOE). I researched some of these agents for my Society of Genealogists’ guide, My Ancestor was a Woman at War. I never fail to be amazed by their bravery, ingenuity and varied skill sets. What drew you to feature SOE in this novel?

    It really started with a local news report about an elderly lady who’d died in Torquay in 2010. To her neighbours, she was someone who, although polite and not unfriendly, kept herself to herself and they knew little about her. But it emerged after her death, that she’d been an SOE, and her name was Eileen Nearne. Something must have triggered a memory of the story a few years later, I really can’t remember what — it was probably WW2 anniversaries and personal recollections reported on the news — which prompted me to read Eileen’s biography, followed by Bernard O’Connor’s book Churchill’s Angels, which systematically logs the experiences, some of them terrifying, of all the women SOEs. What I read inspired several plot points in Malice! I then came across a fascinating book called A Life in Secrets by Sarah Helm about Vera Atkins, who’d made it her personal mission after the war to find out the fate of every SOE she’d waved off to occupied France. It’s a brilliant book. If you’ve not read it, I can thoroughly recommend it.

    Photograph of the coast where The Malice of Angels is set.

    You live in north Devon, where most of this book is set. What appeals to you about this area, both as your home and as a setting for your fictional characters.

    I moved to Devon from the Midlands 38 years ago to take up a teaching post and I’ve never wanted to live anywhere else! For many years I lived and worked close to the North Devon coast so I know it well. I love the wildness of the area I use as the settings for my later books (Blood-Tied was set in Shropshire, where my ancestral “journey” began). I now live right in the middle of Devon, in unspoilt countryside, overlooking a lovely river valley, in a very pretty village with a 13th century Grade One listed church and a cluster of traditional thatched cottages (one of which is ours!). Even the parish hall is thatched! (As you can probably tell, I’m a glutton for old buildings.) It’s a bit further to travel to the north Devon coast these days, but from an author’s perspective, I’ve found it useful to stand back from the place I write about. I think you see it through fresh eyes when you’re not living there all the time. We often take our camper van and stay at the campsite when we need a sea “fix”. The views are magic and the rugged coast is amazing.

    What’s next for you and Esme?

    I promised myself that once Malice was published, I’d give some time to my own family tree and sort out what has become a bit of a chaotic jumble of records and photographs over the years. I also have a few stories about my immediate family I want to write — about my dad who as a child spent 3 years in hospital and was told he’d never walk again but did, about my maternal grandmother who became a professional opera singer at the age of 16 and toured the country’s theatres, about my mum’s recollections of growing up in WW2, including having a bomb drop on to her bed and about the mystery (as yet not completely unravelled) of why my great-aunt walked out of the family home, aged 16 in 1904 and “was never heard of again” until, in her 90s, she was reunited with her only surviving sibling, my paternal grandmother. Not to mention the urge to record my own memories…

    But on the back-burner of the fiction section of my writer’s brain, there is already something brewing for Esme to get her teeth into, so I’m sure it won’t be long before I’ll start plotting again!

     The time-honoured ‘box of old documents in the attic’ stirred Wendy’s interest in genealogy – the inspiration behind her Esme Quentin mystery novels. When not plotting fiction, she’s either digging up her own family history secrets or enjoying the coast and countryside of Devon, which has been her home for the past 38 years.

     

  3. Review of Amelia Dyer and the Baby Farm Murders by Angela Buckley

    ameliadyer

    Angela Buckley is well-known among family historians as the Chair of the Society of Genealogists and for her work on true crime. Her first book, The Real Sherlock Holmes: The Hidden Story of Jerome Caminada (Pen & Sword, 2014) explored crime and criminals through the life of a 19th century Italian-Mancunian detective.

    This latest title is the first in Buckley’s historical true crime series, Victorian Supersleuth Investigates. Focusing on the crime (or in this case, crimes), Buckley carefully pieces together the facts using contemporary reports supported by her research into socio-historical sources.

    Buckley was inspired to explore the crimes of Amelia Dyer when she discovered she lived close to the Reading location where the baby farmer’s victims were found in the River Thames. The true number of Dyer’s victims will never be known, but the book names all those identified through Dyer’s trial, the police investigation, and the rather sensational newspaper reporting of the time. As such, this is a valuable resource for family and social historians. There are details, too, of those who found the victims, along with other witnesses and neighbours.

    One of the mysteries of this case for a modern reader is why did anyone hand over their infants to the murderous Dyer? Buckley provides the background to this, explaining the myriad difficulties in the late Victorian period for women who were unmarried or unable to care for their own children. In my view, the socio-historical detail is one of the book’s greatest strengths.

    Another strength is the lucid writing. Not only is the book easy to read, but the complexities of these crimes and the motivations of the rather puzzling Dyer are explained clearly. Although the subject matter is harrowing, criminal details are balanced against fascinating passages of social history. Despite being full of dates, names and times. the book is short and well-paced. As such it is suitable for anyone wanting to read a book on holiday or during a daily commute. It certainly transports the reader to another world.

  4. Dangerous Characters In London’s Little Italy Fascists, Anti-Fascists, Suffragettes and Spies

    IMG_1683Last week I went to see the latest exhibition at Camden Local Studies and Archives Centre in Holborn and was amazed to learn about a little-known tragedy of the Second World War. The exhibition, “Dangerous Characters in Little Italy” is curated by Alfio Bernabei. Among its exhibits is a section on the sinking of the Arandora Star on 2 July 1940. 805 souls were lost, of which 470 were Italian. It struck me that this is an event that we should commemorate in the way of the Lusitania or other wartime maritime losses. Astonishingly, the exhibition reveals that at the time the event was hidden and little attention was paid to it in the decades that followed.

    Built in 1927, the Arandora Star was originally a leisure cruiser belonging to the Blue Star Line. Recommissioned for war service in 1939, the ship served as a carrier for troops and civilian evacuees. In June 1940, she sailed from Liverpool, transport 734 Italians and 479 Germans who had been interned in Britain to Newfoundland in Canada. Also on board were 86 German prisoners of war and 174 officers and crew. Accompanying them were their guards: 200 Allied naval and military personnel. There was no supporting vessel, indicating that the ship was carrying civilians, and no Red Cross had been painted on the ship.

    Around 100 miles west of Bloody Foreland, Donegal, the Arandora Star was torpedoed by a German U-boat. As the internees clambered into lifeboats, some were shot by their guards to prevent them from escaping. A Canadian destroyer rushed to the scene, managing to rescue 868 lives. In all, 713 internees and 92 guards and crew lost their lives. They included the Captain, E. W. Moulton, 12 officers, 42 crew, 37 military guards, 470 Italians and 243 Germans.

    IMG_1682

    This incident and the silence that followed it, reflected the fear of Italian fascism in Britain during the war. “Dangerous Characters in Little Italy”, first exhibited by Centro Studi P. Calamandrei,Palazzo della Signoria, Jesi, Italy, highlights how fascism grew in Britain’s underground, and how many Italians sought to challenge it. The audio-visual display is based on Bernabei’s research about Italians in Clerkenwell and Soho in the period 1920-1940 and features the rise of Fascism and within the Italian community in London, as well as the activity of the Italian and non-Italian anti-Fascists to oppose it. The exhibition covers the period between the rise of Fascism in Italy in the early 1920s and Italy’s declaration of war on the side of Nazi Germany.

    “Dangerous Characters in Little Italy: Fascists, Anti-Fascists, Suffragettes
    and Spies” is a free exhibition at Camden Local Studies and Archive Centre, 32-38 Theobalds Road, London WC1X 8PA and runs until Friday 3rd July 2015 (Opening Hours: Mon 10-6 Tues 10-6 Thurs 10-7 Fri 10-5 Alternate Saturdays 11-5).

  5. My Great Great Grandfather and the Great Confectionery Swindle of 1911

    Criminal ancestors may have been a source of shame to our families in the past, but for today’s family historians their antics have created many useful and well-archived documents. Court records and newspaper crime reports are particularly rich seams of material for researchers. Searching online, I was delighted to discover my great great grandfather’s appearance in an Old Bailey court proceeding from 1911.

    Thankfully, my ancestor Henry Joseph Barnes (known to his family as “Nen”) wasn’t in the dock. Instead, he had a small part in the misappropriation of a large collection of sweets by 37 year old clerk, John Stone. At the time, Nen was working as a carman for Thomas Handyside Ltd of Holloway Road, manufacturing confectioners.

    From the census, taken two months before this trial took place, I know that in 1911 Nen was living in Boleyn Road, Islington and that his sister lived just north of there in Allen Road, Stoke Newington, where some of the following events took place.

    Old Bailey Proceedings, 27th June 1911. Reference Number: t19110627-43 The full account can be found online at the website, “Proceedings of the Old Bailey: London’s Central Criminal Court 1674-1913”

    STONE, John (37, clerk) , obtaining by false pretences from Thomas Andrews two hundredweight in weight of mixed caramels and other articles, the goods of Nathan Baras Walters, from William Mason, a quantity of confectionery, the goods of Simon Flatto, and from Henry Joseph Barnes five hundredweight in weight of confectionery, the goods of Thomas Handyside Limited, in each case with intent to defraud: attempting to obtain by false pretences from Frederick Charles Wimble a quantity of chocolate, the goods of F. L. Cailler; from Walter George Scott a quantity of chocolate, the goods of Jean Bear, and from Frederick Nettleton one ton of cocoa shell powder, the goods of Frederick Nettleton and others; (forging and uttering and publishing as true a certain writing purporting to be a business reference from Jacob Mehlburg, with intent to defraud).

    Mr. Walter Frampton and Mr. Roome prosecuted; Mr. E. H. Coumbe defended.

    Mr. Coumbe objected to the indictment as charging a number of separate misdemeanours followed by two counts charging forgery and uttering; the prosecution should be put to election as to which count they go upon.

    Judge Rentoul said that he had some doubt as to including the last two counts; evidence of similar acts of obtaining by false pretences could always be given even where not a part of the indictment; the first eight counts were unobjectionable.

    The last two counts were struck out.

    FREDERICK CHARLES WIMBLE , assistant manager to F. L. Cailler, 4, Upper Thames Street. On March 6, 1911, I received letter (produced) from “J. Stone, tobacconist and confectioner, 69, Allen Road, Stoke Newington”: “Dear Sir,—I have for some time dealt with Nestlé and Co.,” ordering a quantity of sweets and giving reference to Bond and Co., 110, Matthias Road, and Bloom Stores, Brick Lane. I wrote the letter (produced) of March 11, stating that on receipt of cheque the goods would be forwarded. On March 13 prisoner telephoned, saying that he was surprised at receiving a pro forma invoice, and asking if the references were satisfactory. I told him the references were satisfactory, but they were not in our trade, and as it was his first transaction we should prefer to have a cheque. He replied: “There is no difficulty about that. I will send you a cheque, but I must have the goods on Wednesday morning without fail.” That was on Monday at 11 a.m. After 4 p.m. I received letter (produced), post-marked “2.15 p.m.,” containing cheque for £10 1s. 6d. The following morning I had the cheque specially presented; it came back dishonoured. I wrote expressing surprise and stating that on receipt of the cash the goods would be forwarded. I heard nothing further from the prisoner.

    Cross-examined. My firm is a member of the Confectioners’ Alliance, whose solicitors appeared at the police-court. We did not prosecute, but I appeared as a witness.

    WALTER GEORGE SCOTT , chief clerk, chocolate department, Nestlé’s Anglo-Swiss Milk Company, owned by Jean Bear. On March 6, 1911, I received letter produced from prisoner ordering goods and referring to Bond and Co. and the Bloom Stores; I forwarded pro forma invoices of £7 1s. 9d.; prisoner sent cheque, which was returned marked “R/D.” I wrote expressing surprise and heard nothing further. I did not part with the goods.

    NATHAN BARAS WALTERS , 122, High Street, Poplar, manufacturing confectioner. On March 15 I received letter produced from prisoner ordering sweets to the value of £5 11s., which I sent with invoice, when the carman brought me cheque produced, which has been returned marked “R/D.” I informed prisoner, who wrote that it was owing to a cheque of £8 9s. 10d. paid into his account being dishonoured and stating he would write when we could present it again. I have not been paid.

    THOMAS ANDREWS , carman to N. B. Walters and Co. corroborated.

    HENRY HANDYSIDE , managing director of Thomas Handyside, Limited, 166 and 167, Holloway Road, manufacturing confectioners. On April 3 I received letter produced from prisoner ordering goods. I wrote with invoice stating the goods would be delivered for cash, on April 6 sent them by my carman and received cheque for £4 14s. 6d. produced, which has been returned marked “R/D.” I informed prisoner, applying for the money and received no answer.

    HENRY JOSH. BARNES , carman to Handyside, corroborated.

    SIMON FLATTO , trading as the Anglo-Russian Confectionery Company, received similar order, sent goods and received cheque for £5 2s. 4d., which was returned marked “R/D.”

    WILLIAM MASON , carman, corroborated.

    FREDERICK NETTLETON , of Nettleton and Morris, 8, Colonial Avenue, E.C., confectionery merchant. On April 19 my firm issued a circular recommending cocoa shell powder to confectionery manufacturers; it is an article only of use to manufacturers. On April 24 I received letter from prisoner asking for quotation, which we sent, and on May 2 received letter produced ordering one ton and giving references to Bond and Co. and to J. Mehlburg, of 193, Whitechapel Road (to whom we had sent a circular). I wrote to both references and received letter produced purporting to come from J. Mehlburg stating that prisoner was good for £20 credit.

    Mr. Coumbe objected to the evidence as embarrassing to the prisoner and as tending to bring in the charge of forgery.

    Judge Rentoul held that this evidence was admissible as evidence of false pretences.

    (Examination continued.) I believe the letter from Mehlburg to be genuine, but after making other inquiries wrote prisoner offering to send the goods on receipt of cash. On March 17 I received letter with cheque for £10 (produced), which was paid into my bank and returned marked “R/D.” I paid the cheque in again with the same result. I wrote prisoner asking for an explanation, but received no reply.

    Cross-examined. I do not know J. Mehlburg and have had no dealings with him; my circular was sent to him as his name appeared in a list of confectioners.

    JACOB MEHLBURG , 193, Whitechapel Road, confectioner. I have known prisoner seven or eight years; he was a clerk to a solicitor and used to collect money and write letters for me. About seven or eight months ago he opened at Allen Road and had £3 worth of goods from me for which he paid. On Saturday, March 11, he asked me to change a cheque for £10 for him. I said if he would call on Monday morning if I had the change I would do so. On the Monday he called, but I had not the money. He said could I get the bank to change it. I said no, he had better open a small banking account. I then introduced prisoner to the London Provincial Bank, Whitechapel Road, where he opened an account and received a cheque book. Prisoner used to call on me once or twice a fortnight. I do not know Nettleton and Morris, have never written to them or authorised anyone to do so. I did not write letter produced or ask anyone to write it for me. It is written on my notepaper.

    Cross-examined. I have been 11 months at 193, Whitechapel Road, and formerly carried on a confectioner’s business at 14, Vallance Road. My wife and family assist in the business when I am out. I am an Austrian and have been 12 years in England. I occasionally deal in job lines in confectionery; I have bought three lots from prisoner for which I produce receipts: April 8, £9; March 31, £6 12s.; March 21, £8 0s. 3d. I did not buy goods to value of £4 9s. 8d. from prisoner in May. I have had no dispute with the Confectioners’ Alliance. I had no occasion to buy through the prisoner from Nestlé or Cailler—I have bought direct from those firms. Cocoa shell powder is of no use to me, as I do not manufacture. I do not know what it is good for. I never told prisoner I would buy some from him. I take about £140 a week in my business. I deal wholesale, buying from manufacturers and supplying small shops. I do not owe prisoner any money for goods supplied. I do not know who wrote the letter to Nettleton produced. Prisoner may have written letters for me years ago. I always sign my letters myself.

    Re-examined. Prisoner has visited me at Vallance Road. Letter produced is written on Vallance Road notepaper and is signed, “J.

    Mehlburg.” I always sign “Jacob Mehlburg.” It is not my brother’s or my traveller’s writing.

    DAVID WETTMAN , Wettman and Co., 19, Osborn Street, E., wholesale confectioners. In May last I received an order from a Mr. J. Stone for 4 cwt. of sweets, coming to £4 19s. 6d. I have mislaid the order. They were to be delivered to his place, Allen Road, Stoke Newington. My carman took them and brought back a cheque for the amount of the bill. This is it, signed J. Stone, and dated May 12. I paid it into my account, and it was returned. I went to see the prisoner, and his wife told me to pay the cheque in again, the money was there. I paid it in again, and it was returned. Prisoner kept a little shop; I did not see any of my stock there. I have received nothing for the goods. Mr. Coumbe said he did not challenge any of the deliveries.

    JULIUS EARET , J. Karet and Co., 38, Bridge Street, Mile End, wholesale confectioners and manufacturers. We received this latter, dated March 21, from J. Stone, Allen Road, Stoke Newington: “I have been dealing with the British Confectionery Company, and on recommendation wish to give you a trial. Please forward 2 cwt. of French nougat, 1 cwt. of chocolate nougat, 1 cwt. of nougat cubes, 1 cwt. of Jap desserts. Please advise when you are delivering.” I told my clerk to book the order, and mark it “C.O.D.” I delivered the goods on March 23. They came to £4 6s. The carman brought the goods back as there was no cash to meet them. On March 24 I received this letter from Stone: “Dear Sirs,—I regret I was not in when goods arrived. Kindly deliver to-morrow, Saturday, and oblige.” I sent them, and the carman brought back a cheque on the London and Provincial Bank, Whitechapel, for £4 6s., signed “J. Stone.” I paid it into my account, and it was dishonoured. I went to the prisoner’s place and saw a woman I believe to be Mrs. Stone; she insulted me. I have never had my money nor the goods back. It was a very little shop there.

    RICHARD WILLIAM HUMPHREY , clerk to London and Provincial Bank, Whitechapel Road. We have a customer named Jacob Mehlberg. On March 13 last he brought Stone to the bank. Prisoner opened an account with a cheque for £10 13s. 9d., and signed the signature book. These cheques (Exhibits 1, 5 to 13) are all signed by Stone. The cheque prisoner opened the account with was returned dishonoured; it has not been paid. The cheque was never paid in again. Our cheque-book was not returned; we applied for it.

    WALTER FREDERICK SISMAN , clerk to London and Provincial Bank, Limited, 167, Whitechapel Road. I produce a certificated copy of the account of J. Stone, Allen Road, Stoke Newington. It was opened on March 13 by a payment in of a cheque for £10 13s. 9d., and a cheque-book containing 24 cheques was handed out on that day to Stone. The account is debited with 2s. for it. The cheque for £10 13s. 9d. was returned dishonoured on March 17. On that date a cash payment was made of £2. A cheque was drawn against that on the 20th for £1 10s. The next payment into that account was on March 20 by a cheque for £8 19s. 10d. It was returned dishonoured on the 24th. It was paid in again on the 24th, and returned again dishonoured on the 28th. That was the last payment in. The only effective payment in was £2. At the last there was 6d. to the credit. On March 14 there was a cheque in favour of Cailler’s British Agency, resented for payment for £16 1s. 8d., which was dishonoured. On the 15th one in favour of Nestlé’s for £7 1s. 9d. There were sixteen other cheques presented for payment in favour of different people, all of which were dishonoured because of no funds to meet them. There was an effective payment into the bank to the credit of the account of £2, against “which cheques for £96 13s. 7d. were drawn. On April 3 a letter was written to Stone, asking him to close his account and return the unused cheques. They were not returned, so far as I know. The cheque-book contained 24 cheques; 19 were drawn.

    Cross-examined. We should not hear whether any of these cheques had been taken up by him.

    Detective-sergeant ERNEST BROCK , M Division. I arrested prisoner on a warrant at 69, Allen Road, Stoke Newington, on May 23. I read it to him. He made no reply. He was charged and made no reply. I searched the premises. There was no telephone there. The telephone number on the billheads, “1212 Dalston,” is at a public-house next door.

    (Defence.)

    JOHN STONE (prisoner, on oath). I am 37 years old, and have been a solicitor’s clerk practically all my life. Of late I have been managing clerk to Mr. G. Edgar Mew, practising in the East End. I first went to him in 1907, and left in September, 1910; his practice was not particularly successful, and he gave up. I then went to Mr. Richards, 1, Great James Street, Bedford Row, and was there for about six months. While with Mr. Mew I became acquainted with a Mr. Winfield. He wanted to sell a shop, and I bought it for £10. My wife looked after it. I was occupied in legal business right up to the time of my arrest. The confectionery business took from £7 to £10 a week gross at first, and then it fell off to about 30s. a week. At first I always paid spot cash for goods supplied for the business up to March this year. About the beginning of last March I was not in regular employment. I had known Mehlberg for years through doing legal business for him. He knew I had taken this shop. I told him I wanted to get further stock cheap, as the takings had gone down, and he said he could give me the names and addresses of firms where I could get cheap goods and credit, and give his name as a reference. I went with him to the bank and opened an account. Early in March I had a good deal of money owing to me from Mr. Nunn and Wilson’s Electric Empires, Limited. Mr. Nunn is managing director of Wilson’s Electric Empires. I have done a lot of work for him and for the company as secretary and confidential clerk. My belief in March was that I was going to be paid, and I should then have money. Cailler’s and Nestlé’s names were given to me by Mehlberg. He said to me, “If you pay cash terms you get a good percentage, 10 or 12 1/2 per cent., and I can afford to give you a very small profit, and then can resell again and get my profit over you. If you give these first orders you can get a month’s credit, and then you will get a certain amount of discount.” This was in the middle of March. In consequence I wrote the letters to Cailler’s and Nestlé’s. The cheques to them were sent on the day I opened the account. I fully anticipated the cheque for £10 13s. 9d. being met. As to the £23, if I had received these goods I would then have arranged with Mehlberg to buy them at a profit, and I should have immediately paid that money into the bank. Even if my cheques had gone back I could have gone to the payees’ banks on the following morning and have picked them up. I say that Mehlberg’s denial of any such contract is a deliberate untruth. What I wrote to Cailler’s is perfectly true, that I had for some time dealt with Nestlé’s. I had not dealt direct with the firm, but with their goods. As regards Walters, Handysides and Flatto, when I knew the £10 13s. 9d. cheque had been dishonoured I saw Mr. Nunn, and he said, “You must hold that cheque over.” I fully believed the cheque for £8 19s. 10d. would have been met. At that time I was expecting daily to receive £45, and acting on that belief I ordered these goods. As regards the other goods during March and April, Mehlberg had arranged to pay me, bat he did not do so promptly. I received some money from him, and paid current accounts. The cheques drawn to the Stoke Newington Borough Council and Metropolitan Water Board I tore up and paid cash instead, out of the moneys I received. If I had received sufficient cash from my debtors I should have picked up all these cheques and should have had a balance in hand as well. That was absolutely my intention from the beginning. The three firms dealt with in May were all well known to Mehlberg. He said to me, “You will get the goods from those people, I will buy them from you and you can pay them in to meet your cheques,” which I was going to do. I let him have the goods I received from the Maple Confectionery Company. He owes me the money for them to this day.

    (Saturday, July 1.)

    JOHN STONE (prisoner) recalled. On May 15 by a friendly arrangement a receiver on behalf of a debenture holder was appointed of Wilson Electric Empires, Limited. My claim was sent in then for £47 19s. 10d., of which £38 was a preferential claim for arrears of salary and admitted. Mr. Wilson is at Bath at present. The reference sent to Messrs. Nettleton and Morris came from Mr. Mehlberg. He requested me to write to them and order a ton of cocoa shell at the price quoted in a circular he gave me and he would give me a sovereign profit, the arrangement being that if I got that they would then give me credit and I could get five tons and he would be able to sell it. The letter from Mehlberg’s looks like his brother’s writing. I do not think he can write Englsh. I have written many letters for him and signed his name to them. Other people have done so as well. I wish to make an offer to assign to a trustee, on behalf of the prosecutors’ debts owing to me amounting roughly to about £72. I say the total of the goods I have had delivered to me is about £33 or £34. The thought never entered my mind of defrauding any one of these persons of their goods or their money.

    Cross-examined. I have been a solicitor’s clerk for 23 years and according to my circular the proprietor of a legal agency, but there was very little in it. I know from my legal experience that Criminal Courts will not listen to such a suggestion as I made as to paying these people, but it was a suggestion of mine. The evidence they have given (excepting Mehlberg) I agree is true as to my ordering the goods, but I do not say it is true they wanted cash for them. I left my cheque book at home signed, and if they asked for payment when delivering the goods they were to be asked if they would accept a cheque. I anticipated the delivery of the goods on the usual terms, one month. I say I had a perfect right to draw on the bank. Whether I had or not, unless there was money there to meet the cheques, is a matter of opinion. Many people draw cheques in anticipation of getting money in time to meet them: that is finance. This is a question of finance: I anticipated money. I did not wish the people to believe that money was at the bank at the time nor that I did not have a farthing there; I always had something. I never had more than £2 in the account. With the exception of that £2, against which 30s. was drawn a few days afterwards, and 2s. charged for a cheque book and two dishonoured cheques I received from Wilson and Nunn, I have unfortunately not paid a farthing into my account. When you asked whether when I applied to Messrs. Cailler and Nestlé for goods I mentioned that I was dealing with a rival house you are putting it very broadly. I said to Cailler’s that I was dealing with Nestlé’s and to Nestlés that I was dealing with Cailler’s. Mr. Nunn used to call himself Wilson. I have known him for seven or eight years. He is an undischarged bankrupt. He obtained credit far over £20 without disclosing the fact, was prosecuted and acquitted. He brought an action for malicious prosecution, which he lost. He has not paid any of the costs. I was a witness and managing clerk to his solicitor. I knew his position early this year. I acted for him in a matter of rates. That is the gentleman whose cheque I was accepting to open an account at my bank on March 17. I certainly thought it was going to be met. It was not a shock to me when I found it dishonoured; I have had a good many dishonoured. Although it was that day I drew cheques for £16 to Cailler’s and £7 to Nestlé’s I had every wish to meet them.

    Re-examined. Mr. Nunn has an action against the Bioscope Company still proceeding for breaches of agreement in which he claims £1,200. I know they made him an offer of £100 and costs, which he refused and then he brought the action for malicious prosecution.

    Mr. Frampton. That action has been discontinued.

    Mr. Coumbe. We do not know that. (Evidence continued.) Wilson has paid hundreds of pounds to big firms in the picture business, but his expenses were very heavy.

    Verdict, Guilty.

    Sentence, 12 months’ hard labour.

    BEFORE MR. JUSTICE DARLING.

    (Saturday, July 1.)

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Member of The Association of Genealogists and Researchers in ArchivesGraduate of the Institute of Heraldic and Genealogical Studies CanterburyMember of the Society of Genealogists